Erschienen 2009 bei Alphascript Publishing
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! A crisis may occur on a personal or societal level. It may be an unstable and dangerous social situation, in political, social, economic, military affairs, or a large-scale environmental event, especially one involving an impending abrupt change. More loosely, it is a term meaning 'a testing time' or 'emergency event'.Crisis has four defining characteristics. Seeger, Sellnow and Ulmer explain that a crises are "specific, unexpected, and non-routine events or series of events that high levels of uncertainty and threat or perceived threat to an organization's high priority goals." Thus the first three characteristics are that the event is 1. unexpected (i.e., a surprise). creates uncertainty, and 3. is seen as a threat to important goals. Venette argues that "crisis is a process of transformation where the old system can no longer be maintained." Therefore the fourth defining quality is the need for change. If change is not needed, the event could more accurately be described as a failure.